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Author: TheConversation

Educational Segregation: What the racial composition of public schools looks like today

By Erica Frankenberg, Professor of Education and Demography, Pennsylvania State University School segregation is the separation of students into different schools by race. In 1954, the Supreme Court declared segregation was unconstitutional. Desegregation efforts since then have used a variety of tools to try to overcome patterns of segregation that persist. Studies have shown that school desegregation has important benefits for students of all races. Recent research illustrates that its positive impact on the educational attainment, lifetime earnings and health of African American families persists for multiple generations. Yet, despite years of government desegregation efforts and the proven benefits...

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Study highlights new generations in Vietnam still feeling the health impacts from war

By Michael Palmer, Nora Groce, and Sophie Mitra; Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Western Australia; Director UCL International Disability Research Centre, UCL; Professor of Economics, Fordham University History often focuses on the immediate death toll of war. But hostilities can have longer-term consequences on a population’s health. In our new study published on June 5, we investigated how U.S. Air Force bombing in Vietnam during 1965 to 1975 affected disability rates in Vietnam in 2009. Using a combination of national census and U.S. military data, we found a causal link between wartime bombing and disability rates 40 years...

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Neil Armstrong: The afterglow of a giant leap for all mankind

By Joe Essid, Writing Center Director at University of Richmond According to a Gallup Poll from 1999, only 50 percent of those surveyed could even name Neil Armstrong as the first man to land on the moon. The film “First Man,” starring Ryan Gosling as Neil Armstrong, may boost public recognition of Armstrong’s name and career. But his fate after his “giant leap for all mankind” mirrored that of public interest in the moon landings and, broader still, trust in government, which has steadily eroded since the early 1970s. It may be hard to imagine today, but from the...

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A Lunar Atlas: How telescopes created photographic maps for Apollo missions

By Timothy Swindle, Professor of Planetary Sciences and Geosciences, University of Arizona At an International Astronomical Union meeting in 1955, noted astronomer Gerard Kuiper asked for suggestions and collaborators on a project to make a map of the Moon. At the time, the best lunar atlases had hand-drawn images, and Kuiper wanted to use state-of-the-art telescopes to make a photographic atlas. Only one person responded. That was indicative of the astronomical community’s general attitude toward the Moon. After all, telescopes were designed to look at distant objects, and the Moon is rather close, and boring as well, since its...

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Space Dreams: When a trip to the moon only took place in the imagination

By Anne Collins Goodyear, Co-Director of the Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Bowdoin College In the midst of the space race, Hereward Lester Cooke, the former co-director of the NASA Art Program, observed, “Space travel started in the imagination of the artist.” If the 50th anniversary of the first Moon landing is an opportunity to celebrate a remarkable technological achievement, it’s also a good time to reflect on the creative vision that made it possible. Long before Neil Armstrong set foot on the Moon, artists and writers were crafting visions of extraterrestrial exploration that would make space flight possible....

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Gifts from NASA: Five innovations needed for moon-landings that changed our life on Earth

By Jean Creighton, Planetarium Director, NASA Airborne Astronomy Ambassador, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Much of the technology common in daily life today originates from the drive to put a human being on the Moon. This effort reached its pinnacle when Neil Armstrong stepped off the Eagle landing module onto the lunar surface 50 years ago. As a NASA airborne astronomy ambassador and director of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Manfred Olson Planetarium, I know that the technologies behind weather forecasting, GPS and even smartphones can trace their origins to the race to the Moon. 1. Rockets October 4, 1957 marked the...

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