Author: TheConversation

Political Tribalism: How fear of “the other” manipulates our social discourse

By Arash Javanbakht, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Wayne State University People have always used fear for intimidation of the subordinates or enemies, and shepherding the tribe by the leaders. Recently, it appears that President Trump has used fear by suggesting in a tweet that four minority congresswomen go back to the places they came from. There is a longstanding history of employing the fear of “the others,” turning humans into illogical ruthless weapons, in service to an ideology. Fear is a very strong tool that can blur humans’ logic and change their behavior. Fear is arguably as old as...

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Milliken v. Bradley: How suburban schools were allowed to dodge Brown v. Board of Education

By Jon Hale, Associate Professor of Education, University of South Carolina America recently marked the 65-year anniversary of the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education – a landmark case intended to abolish the “separate-but-equal” doctrine of racial segregation in schools. But the racial makeup of today’s schools actually owes itself to a series of other court decisions – including one issued 45 years ago on July 25, 1974. The Milliken v. Bradley decision sanctioned a form of segregation that has allowed suburbs to escape being included in court-ordered desegregation and busing plans with nearby cities. The...

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Educational Segregation: What the racial composition of public schools looks like today

By Erica Frankenberg, Professor of Education and Demography, Pennsylvania State University School segregation is the separation of students into different schools by race. In 1954, the Supreme Court declared segregation was unconstitutional. Desegregation efforts since then have used a variety of tools to try to overcome patterns of segregation that persist. Studies have shown that school desegregation has important benefits for students of all races. Recent research illustrates that its positive impact on the educational attainment, lifetime earnings and health of African American families persists for multiple generations. Yet, despite years of government desegregation efforts and the proven benefits...

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Study highlights new generations in Vietnam still feeling the health impacts from war

By Michael Palmer, Nora Groce, and Sophie Mitra; Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Western Australia; Director UCL International Disability Research Centre, UCL; Professor of Economics, Fordham University History often focuses on the immediate death toll of war. But hostilities can have longer-term consequences on a population’s health. In our new study published on June 5, we investigated how U.S. Air Force bombing in Vietnam during 1965 to 1975 affected disability rates in Vietnam in 2009. Using a combination of national census and U.S. military data, we found a causal link between wartime bombing and disability rates 40 years...

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Neil Armstrong: The afterglow of a giant leap for all mankind

By Joe Essid, Writing Center Director at University of Richmond According to a Gallup Poll from 1999, only 50 percent of those surveyed could even name Neil Armstrong as the first man to land on the moon. The film “First Man,” starring Ryan Gosling as Neil Armstrong, may boost public recognition of Armstrong’s name and career. But his fate after his “giant leap for all mankind” mirrored that of public interest in the moon landings and, broader still, trust in government, which has steadily eroded since the early 1970s. It may be hard to imagine today, but from the...

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A Lunar Atlas: How telescopes created photographic maps for Apollo missions

By Timothy Swindle, Professor of Planetary Sciences and Geosciences, University of Arizona At an International Astronomical Union meeting in 1955, noted astronomer Gerard Kuiper asked for suggestions and collaborators on a project to make a map of the Moon. At the time, the best lunar atlases had hand-drawn images, and Kuiper wanted to use state-of-the-art telescopes to make a photographic atlas. Only one person responded. That was indicative of the astronomical community’s general attitude toward the Moon. After all, telescopes were designed to look at distant objects, and the Moon is rather close, and boring as well, since its...

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